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Cumbia De Quatro - Creole Unit - Latitudes 30


Label: Kardum - KAR 993 • Format: CD • Country: France • Genre: Jazz • Style: Folk
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It is bordered on the northeast by Hondurason the northwest by Guatemalaand on the south by the Pacific Ocean. El Salvador's capital and largest city is San Salvador. As of [update]the country had a population of approximately 6. El Salvador was for centuries inhabited by several Mesoamerican nations, especially the Cuzcatlecsas well as the Lenca and Maya. In the early 16th century, the Spanish Empire conquered the territory, incorporating it into the Viceroyalty of New Spain ruled from Mexico City.

However the Viceroyalty of Mexico had little or no influence in the daily affairs of the Central American isthmus, which would be colonized in In the area became the Captaincy General of Guatemalafrom which El Salvador was part of until its independence from Spain, which took place inas part of the First Mexican Empirethen further seceded, as part of the Federal Republic of Central Americain When the Republic dissolved inEl Salvador became a sovereign nation, then formed a short-lived union with Honduras and Nicaragua called the Greater Republic of Central Americawhich lasted from to From the late 19th to the midth century, El Salvador endured chronic political and economic instability characterized by coups, revolts, and a succession of authoritarian rulers.

Persistent socioeconomic inequality and civil unrest culminated in the devastating Salvadoran Civil War —which was fought between the military-led government and a coalition of left-wing guerrilla groups.

The conflict ended with the Chapultepec Peace Accords. This negotiated settlement established a multiparty constitutional republic, which remains in place to this day. Tomayate is a paleontological site located on the banks of the river of the same name in the municipality of Apopa. The site has produced abundant Salvadoran megafauna fossils belonging to the Pleistocene epoch. The paleontological site was discovered accidentally inand in the following year, an excavation by the Museum of Natural History of El Salvador revealed not only several remnants of Cuvieroniusbut also several other species of vertebrates.

In the Tomayate site, they have recovered at least 19 species of vertebrates, including giant tortoisesMegatheriumGlyptodonToxodonextinct horses, paleo-llamas and especially a large number of skeletal remains of proboscis genus Cuvieronius.

The Tomayate site stands out from most Central American Pleistocene deposits, being more ancient and much richer, which provides valuable information of the Great American Interchangein which the Central American isthmus landbridge played the title primordial role.

At the same time, it is considered the richest vertebrate paleontological site in Central America and one of the largest accumulations of proboscideans in the Americas. Sophisticated civilization in El Salvador dates to its settlement by the indigenous Lenca people ; theirs was the first and the oldest indigenous civilization to settle in El Salvador. The Lenca were succeeded by the Olmecswho eventually also disappeared, leaving their monumental architecture in the form of the pyramids still extant in western El Salvador.

The Maya arrived and settled in place of the Olmecs, but their numbers were greatly diminished when the Ilopango supervolcano eruption caused a massive Mayan exodus out of what is now El Salvador. Centuries later they themselves were replaced by the Pipil peopleNahua speaking groups [19] who migrated from Mexico in the centuries before the European conquest and occupied the central and western regions.

The Pipil were the last indigenous people to arrive in El Salvador. In pre-Columbian times, the country was also inhabited by various other indigenous peoples, including the Lencaa Chilanga Lencan-speaking group [24] who settled in the eastern highlands.

Since El Salvador resided on the eastern edge of the Maya Civilization, the origins of many of El Salvador's ruins are controversial. The first indigenous people to have contact with the Spanish were the Lenca of eastern El Salvador.

Inafter participating in the conquest of MexicoSpanish conquistadors led by Pedro de Alvarado and his brother Gonzalo crossed the Rio Paz Peace River from the area comprising the present Republic of Guatemala into what is now the Republic of El Salvador.

The Spaniards were disappointed to discover that the indigenous Pipil people had no gold or jewels like those they had found in Guatemala or Mexico, but recognized the richness of Cumbia De Quatro - Creole Unit - Latitudes 30 land's volcanic soil. Pedro de Alvarado led the first incursion by Spanish forces to extend their dominion to the nation of Cuzcatlan El Salvadorin June Cuzcatlec warriors moved to the coastal city of Acajutla and Lives & Treasure (Acrylics Cover) - Blood Orange - Blood Orange Home Recordings Mixtape for Alvarado and his forces.

Alvarado approached, confident that the result would be similar to what occurred in Mexico and Guatemala where the people believed the Spanish were gods. He thought he would easily defeat this new indigenous force since his Mexican allies and the Pipil of Cuzcatlan spoke a similar language. The Indigenous peoples of El Salvador did not see the Spanish as gods, but as foreign invaders. Alvarado saw that the Cuzcatan force outnumbered his Spanish soldiers and Mexican Mi Jaca - Armonia Montez - La Violetera allies.

The Spanish withdrew and the Cuzcatlec army attacked, running behind them with war chants and shooting bow arrows. Alvarado had no choice but to fight to survive. Alvarado described the Cuzcatlec soldiers in great detail as having shields made of colorful exotic feathers, a vest-like armor made of three inch cotton which arrows could not penetrate, and large spears. Both armies suffered many casualties, with a wounded Alvarado retreating and losing a lot of his men, especially among the Mexican Indian auxiliaries.

Once his army had regrouped, Alvarado decided to head to the Cuzcatlan capital and again faced armed Cuzcatlec. Wounded, unable to fight and hiding in the cliffs, Alvarado sent his Spanish men on their horses to approach the Cuzcatlec to see if they would fear Cumbia De Quatro - Creole Unit - Latitudes 30 horses, but they did not retreat, Alvarado recalls in his letters to Hernan Cortez.

The Cuzcatlec attacked again, and on this occasion stole Spanish weaponry. Alvarado retreated and sent Mexican Indian messengers to demand that the Cuzcatlec warriors return the stolen weapons and surrender to the Spanish king. The Cuzcatlec responded with the famous response, "If you want your weapons, come get them". As days passed, Alvarado, fearing an ambush, sent more Mexican Indian messengers to negotiate, but these messengers never came back and were Falling Leaves - Terri Wells - Just Like Dreamin executed.

The Spanish efforts were firmly resisted by Rackin My Mind - Various - Takin A Detour indigenous people, including the Pipil and their Mayan-speaking neighbors. They defeated the Spaniards and what was left of their Mexican Tlaxcala Indian allies, forcing them to withdraw to Guatemala.

After being wounded, Alvarado abandoned the war and appointed his brother, Gonzalo de Alvaradoto continue the task. Two subsequent expeditions the first infollowed by a smaller group in brought the Pipil under Spanish control, since the Pipil also were weakened by a regional epidemic of smallpox. The Spanish faced much resistance from the Pipil and were not able to reach eastern El Salvador, the area of the Lencas. In the Spanish founded the garrison town of San Miguelheaded by another explorer and conquistador, Luis de Moscoso Alvaradonephew of Pedro Alvarado.

Through surprise attacks and overwhelming numbers, they were able to drive the Spanish out of San Miguel and destroy the garrison. For ten years the Lencas prevented the Spanish from building a permanent settlement. Then the Spanish returned with more soldiers, including about 2, forced conscripts from indigenous communities in Guatemala. Antu Silan Ulap eventually handed over control of the Lenca resistance to Lempira also called Empira. Lempira was noteworthy among indigenous leaders in that he mocked the Spanish by wearing their clothes after capturing them and using their weapons captured in battle.

Lempira fought in command of thousands of Lenca forces for six more years in El Salvador and Honduras Cumbia De Quatro - Creole Unit - Latitudes 30 he was killed in battle.

The remaining Lenca forces retreated into the hills. The Spanish were then able to rebuild their garrison town of San Miguel in During the colonial period, El Salvador was part of the Captaincy General of Guatemalaalso known as the Kingdom of Guatemala Spanish : Reino de Guatemalacreated in as an administrative division of New Spain. The Salvadoran territory was administered by the Mayor of Sonsonate, with San Salvador being established as an intendancia in Towards the end ofa combination of internal and external factors motivated Central American elites to attempt to gain independence from the Spanish Crown.

The most important internal factors were the desire of local elites to control the country's affairs free of involvement from Spanish authorities, and the long-standing Creole aspiration for independence.

The main Песня о весёлом барабанщике - Various - Пионерские песни Поют звёзды эстрады factors motivating the independence movement were the success of the French and American revolutions in the 18th century, Cumbia De Quatro - Creole Unit - Latitudes 30 the weakening of the Daniel - Bagatelle - Under The Covers Crown's military power as a result of the Napoleonic Warswith the resulting inability to control its colonies effectively.

This insurrection was suppressed and many of its leaders were arrested and served sentences in jail. Another insurrection was launched inand again this insurrection was also suppressed. In in light of unrest in Guatemala, Spanish authorities capitulated and signed the Act of Independence of Central Americawhich released all of the Captaincy of Guatemala comprising current territories of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica and the Mexican state of Chiapas from Spanish rule and declared its independence.

El Salvador resisted, insisting on autonomy Cumbia De Quatro - Creole Unit - Latitudes 30 the Central American countries. A Mexican military detachment marched to San Salvador and suppressed dissent, but with the fall of Iturbide on 19 Marchthe army decamped back to Mexico. Shortly thereafter, the authorities of the provinces revoked the vote to join Mexico, deciding instead to form a federal union of the five remaining provinces. Chiapas permanently joined Mexico at this juncture.

When the Federal Republic of Central America dissolved inEl Salvador maintained its own government until it joined Honduras and Nicaragua in to form the Greater Republic of Central Americawhich dissolved in After the midth century, the economy was based on coffee growing. As the world market for indigo withered away, the economy prospered or suffered as the world coffee price fluctuated.

The enormous profits that coffee yielded as a monoculture export Cumbia De Quatro - Creole Unit - Latitudes 30 as an impetus for the concentration of land into the hands of an oligarchy Cumbia De Quatro - Creole Unit - Latitudes 30 just a few families. Throughout the last half of the 19th century, a succession of presidents from the ranks of the Salvadoran oligarchy, nominally both conservative and liberalgenerally agreed on the promotion of coffee as the predominant cash cropthe development of infrastructure railroads and port facilities primarily in support of the coffee trade, the elimination of communal landholdings to facilitate further coffee production, the passage of anti- vagrancy laws to ensure that displaced campesinos and other Discovery - Pat Metheny - A Map Of The World (Music From And Inspired By The Motion Picture) residents provided sufficient labor for the coffee fincas plantationsand the suppression of rural discontent.

Inthe national guard was created as a rural police force. InGen. Once in office he revived the practice of presidents designating their successors. After serving his term, he remained active in the Army of El Salvador, and was killed July 11,at El Jicaro during a war against Guatemala. Until El Salvador was politically You Dont Have To Say You Love Me - Cliff Anderson - Tribute To Elvis Presley, with undercurrents of popular discontent.

When President Dr. Manuel Enrique Araujo was killed inmany hypotheses were advanced for the political motive of his murder. Araujo's administration was followed by the Melendez-Quinonez dynasty that lasted from to His government lasted only nine months before it was overthrown by junior military officers who accused his Labor Party of lacking political and governmental experience and of using its government offices inefficiently.

President Araujo faced general popular discontent, as the people had expected economic reforms and the redistribution of land. There were demonstrations in front of the National Palace from the first week of his administration. His vice president and minister of war was Gen. Only the First Regiment of Cavalry and the National Police defended the presidency the National Police had been on its payrollbut later that night, after hours of fighting, the badly outnumbered defenders surrendered to rebel forces.

The Directorate, composed of officers, hid behind a shadowy figure, [34] a rich anti-Communist banker called Rodolfo Duke, and later installed the ardent fascist Gen. The revolt was probably due to the army's discontent at not having been paid by President Araujo for some months. Araujo left the National Palace and unsuccessfully tried to organize forces to defeat the revolt. The U. He resigned six months prior to running for re-election, winning back the presidency as the only candidate on the ballot.

He ruled from tothen from to He began a fourth term inbut resigned in May after a general strike. Only Cuenca survived; the other insurgents were killed by the government. After the capture of the movement leaders, the insurrection erupted in a disorganized and mob-controlled fashion, resulting in government repression that was later referred to as La Matanza The Massacrebecause tens of thousands of peasants died in the ensuing chaos on the orders of President Martinez.

Their goal was to help poor and underprivileged Salvadorans Cumbia De Quatro - Creole Unit - Latitudes 30 the use of Marxist-Leninist ideology strongly rejecting Stalinism. They helped start a guerrilla revolt of indigenous farmers.


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