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Black-tailed jackrabbits occupy mixed shrub-grassland terrains. Their breeding depends on the location; it typically peaks in spring, but may continue all year round in warm climates.
Young are born fully furred with eyes open; they are well camouflaged and are mobile within minutes of birth, thus females do not protect or even stay with the young except during nursing. You & I - Jack Rabbitz - Jack Rabbitz average litter size is around four, but may be as low as two and as high as seven in warm regions. The black-tailed jackrabbit does not migrate or hibernate during winter and uses the same habitat of 0. Its diet is composed of various shrubs, small trees, grasses, and forbs.
Shrubs generally comprise the bulk of fall and winter diets, while grasses and forbs are used in spring and early summer, but the pattern and plant species vary with climate. The black-tailed jackrabbit is an important prey species for raptors and carnivorous mammalssuch as eagles, hawksowlscoyotesfoxes, and wild cats. The rabbits host many ectoparasites including fleasticksliceand mites ; for this reason, hunters often avoid collecting them.
Like other jackrabbitsthe black-tailed jackrabbit has distinctive long ears, and the long powerful rear legs characteristic of hares. Additionally, the much more northerly Arctic hare and Alaskan hare are somewhat larger than the jackrabbit members of the hare genus.
The black-tailed jackrabbit's dorsal fur is agouti dark buff peppered with blackand its undersides and the insides of its legs are creamy white. The ears are black-tipped on the outer surfaces, and unpigmented inside. The ventral surface of the tail is grey to white, and the black dorsal surface of the tail continues up the spine for a few inches to form a short, black stripe. Although 17 subspecies are recognized, this number may be excessive. They suggested only two infrataxa are warranted: the western subspecies L.
The black-tailed jackrabbit is the most widely distributed jackrabbit Lepus species in North You & I - Jack Rabbitz - Jack Rabbitz . Native black-tailed jackrabbit populations occur from central Washington east to Missouri and south to Baja California Sur and Zacatecas.
Black-tailed jackrabbit distribution is currently expanding eastward in the Great Plains at the expense of white-tailed jackrabbit. In the Baja California Peninsula, there are six subspecies of L. The current distribution is a result from sea level rise about 21, years ago, after the Last Glacial Maximum. Due to this geographic isolation, the current subspecies of L.
The first clade is associated with subspecies L. The second clade is associated with subspecies L. This clade has a ranging coloration pattern of light brown to yellow. The third clade is associated with subspecies L. Distribution of subspecies occurring entirely or partially in the United States is:  . The black-tailed jackrabbit occupies plant communities with a mixture of shrubs, grasses, and forbs.
Shrubland-herb mosaics are preferred over pure stands of shrubs or herbs. Black-tailed jackrabbit populations are common in sagebrush Artemisia spp. Male black-tailed jackrabbits reach sexual maturity around 7 months of age.
Ovulation is induced by copulation. In the northern part of their range in Idaho, black-tailed jackrabbits breed from February through May. The Kansas breeding season extends from January to August. T-99 (My Sweet little Honey Dripper) - Various - The Modern Records Blues Story peak breeding seasons corresponding to rainfall patterns and growth of young vegetation occur in California,  Arizona,  and New Mexico.
In Arizona, for example, breeding peaks during winter January—March rains and again during June monsoons. The gestation period ranges from 41 to 47 days. Average litter size has been reported at 4. Female black-tailed jackrabbits do not prepare an elaborate nest. They give birth in shallow excavations called forms that are no more than a few centimeters deep. Females may line forms with hair prior to giving birth, but some drop litters in existing depressions on the ground with no further preparation.
Captive black-tailed jackrabbits are The Merry Wives Of Windsor - Various - A Treasury Of Concert Favourites weaned by 8 weeks.
The black-tailed jackrabbit can occupy a wide range of habitats as long as diversity in plant species exists. It requires mixed grasses, forbs, and shrubs for food, and shrubs or small trees for cover. For example, in California, black-tailed jackrabbits are plentiful in open chamise Ademostoma fasciculatum and Ceanothus spp. Black-tailed jackrabbits do not migrate or hibernate during winter;   the same habitat is used year-round.
Black-tailed jackrabbits require shrubs or small conifers for hiding, nesting, and thermal cover, and grassy areas for night feeding. Small shrubs do not provide adequate cover.
Black-tailed jackrabbits do not habitually use a burrow although they have occasionally been observed using abandoned burrows for escape and thermal cover.
The black-tailed jackrabbit diet is composed of shrubs, small trees, grasses, and forbs. Throughout the course of a year, black-tailed jackrabbits feed on most if not all of the important plant species in a community.
Shrubs generally comprise the bulk of fall and winter diets, while grasses and forbs are used in spring and early summer. This pattern varies with climate: herbaceous plants are grazed during greenup periods while the plants are in prereproductive to early reproductive stages, and shrubs are used more in dry seasons. Most of a jackrabbit's body water is replaced by foraging water-rich vegetation.
Therefore, black-tailed jackrabbits switch to phreatophyte deep-rooted shrubs when herbaceous vegetation is recovering from their foraging. Plant species used by black-tailed jackrabbits are well documented for desert regions. Forage use in other regions is less well known.
However, black-tailed jackrabbits browse Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menziesii You & I - Jack Rabbitz - Jack Rabbitzponderosa pine Pinus ponderosalodgepole pine P. Rabbitbrush Chrysothamnus spp. Russian thistle Salsola kali is an important forb diet item. Needle-and-thread grass Stipa comata and Indian ricegrass Oryzopsis hymenoides are preferred grasses. Other preferred native grasses include Sandberg bluegrass Poa secunda and bluebunch wheatgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata.
Where available, crested wheatgrass Agropyron desertorum and Agropyron cristatum and barley Hordeum vulgare are highly preferred. In warm desert, mesquite Prosopis spp. In honey mesquite Prosopis glandulosa var. The black-tailed jackrabbit is an important prey species for many raptors and carnivorous mammals. The black-tailed jackrabbit and Townsend's ground squirrel Spermophilus townsendii are the two most important prey species on the Snake River Birds of Prey Study Area.
Other raptors consuming black-tailed jackrabbits include the great horned owl Bubo virginianusburrowing owl Athene cuniculariagolden eagle Aquila chrysaetosand bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus. A significant correlation exists between golden eagle and black-tailed jackrabbit reproduction patterns.
Jackrabbits and cottontails Sylvilagus spp. Mammalian predators include coyote Canis latransbobcat Lynx rufuslynx Lynx canadensisdomestic dog Canis lupus familiarisdomestic cat Felis silvestris catusred The First Time For Me - Various - Bert Lahr On Stage, Screen And Radio Vulpes vulpesYou & I - Jack Rabbitz - Jack Rabbitz gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteusAmerican badger Taxidea taxuswolf Canis lupusand mountain lion Puma concolor.
It is locally and regionally important to other mammalian predators. Rattlesnakes Crotalus spp. The black-tailed jackrabbit plays host to many ectoparasites including fleasticksliceand mitesand many endoparasites including trematodescestodesnematodesand botfly Cuterebra larvae.
Diseases affecting the When You Are Old And Grey - Tom Lehrer The Words, Music And Lyrics Of Tom Lehrer The London Cast* - jackrabbit in the West are tularemiaequine encephalitisbrucellosisQ feverand Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Ticks are vectors for tularemia, and infected ticks have been found on jackrabbits in the West. Jackrabbits infected with tularemia die very quickly. The high prevalence Belfast Barn Dance - Paddy Noonan - A Ramble In Erin disease and parasites in wild jackrabbits affects human predation.
Many hunters will not collect the jackrabbits they shoot, and those who do are well advised to wear gloves while handling carcasses and to cook the meat thoroughly to avoid contracting tularemia. Most hunting of jackrabbits is done for pest control or sport.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Black-tailed jackrabbit  Conservation status. Gray In Wilson, D. M eds. Johns Hopkins University Press. Mammals of the Eastern United States. Cornell University Press. Acta Zoologica Fennica. Numerical taxonomic analysis". Taxonomic history and population status". Wild mammals of North America: biology, management and economics.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Raymond Durant; Welch, Bruce L. Ogden, UT: U. Creosote bush: Biology and chemistry of Larrea in New World deserts. You & I - Jack Rabbitz - Jack Rabbitz of Range Management. The lagomorphs: rabbits, hares, and pika.
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